Minggu, 02 Januari 2011

Top Ten Tempat Wisata di Melbourne, Australia

Sejauh pengamatan saya, kok nggak ada ya travel guide yang menyajikan tujuan-tujuan wisata dengan ringan tapi komprehansif; dengan bahasa yang tidak kaku dan bertujuan untuk menginformasikan (bukan menjual) serta memberikan informasi yang tidak umum dan unik. Lalu sempat kepikiran, kenapa tidak buat sendiri? Saya sudah sempat membuat posting pendek tentang Jogja, dan sepertinya Melbourne adalah kota kedua yang cukup menarik untuk diceritakan.

Melbourne, kota kedua terbesar di Australia setelah Sydney memang pantas disebut garden city karena dimana-mana selalu ada taman. Kesan pertama waktu saya disana cukup standar: kota ini hijau sekali. Standar piknik disana biasanya selalu disertai dengan membakar steak, karena BBQ sudah menjadi budaya bangsa Australia. Karena saking segitunya sama BBQ, pemerintah bahkan menyediakan bakaran BBQ yang diperasikan dengan listrik: Anda cukup menekan tombok power dan bakaran akan panas selama beberapa menit. Nah berikut ini adalah sejumlah tempat wisata yang cukup asyik untuk dikunjungi disana:

Soverign Hill, Ballarat

Ini tujuan wisata yang sayang kalau dilewatkan. Soverign Hill adalah sebuah kota penghasil emas di Australia dari pertengahan tahun 1800 yang direka ulang sehingga menjadi obyek wisata yang membawa anda ke masa lalu. Bayangkan rumah-rumah dan toko-toko kuno di jalan tanah yang dilalui orang-orang berbusana model abad 19 dan kereta kuda. Anda bisa mengikuti pelajaran sekolah dari jaman itu (bahkan belajar menulis dengan pena celup), melihat cara kerja mesin uap kuno (yang masih berjalan dengan sempurna), mendulang emas di sungai, bermain boling jaman dulu sampai melihat perkemahan imigran Cina. Jangan lupa untuk mencicipi caramel fudge dan lolipop yang dijual di toko permen di Main Street. Kalau ingin menguji kemampuan anda mendulang emas, sebaiknya anda tidak ke Souverign Hill pada saat musim dingin karena air sungainya sangat membekukan tangan.

Bourke Street Walk

Ini sepertinya tujuan wajib bagi pelancong karena terletak di City (Central Business District-nya Melbourne). Di Bourke Street ada berbagai macam toko dan pusat suvenir 2 dolar-an yang cocok untuk oleh-oleh. Bagi yang gila belanja, dua departement store besar: Myer dan David Jones juga terletak disini.

Akan tetapi yang paling menarik di Bourke Street adalah pengamen jalanan yang memainkan berbagai jenis musik, mulai dari genre Spanish Guitar hingga Jazz. Jangan salah, mereka tidak minta uang receh; melainkan menawarkan CD album mereka. Kalau anda berkunjung ke Melburne pada musim natal, Myer selalu menyulap jendela etalase mereka menjadi rangkaian petunjukan audio-animatronics yang bertema natal seperti Rudolph the Red Nose Reindeer dan How the Grinch Stole Christmas.

South Yarra

South Yarra yang terletak di selatan sungai Yarra adalah kampungnya orang kaya Melbourne. Mentengnya Melbourne lah. Coba lewat sana sewaktu musim gugur, nanti rumah-rumah megah yang kebanyakan ber-arsitektur kolonial akan nampak romantis dihiasi dengan guguran daun yang merah kecoklatan.

Sehabis itu Anda bisa mencari barbeque spot di tepi sungai Yarra, lalu memasak BBQ steak yang lezat menggunakan panggangan yang sudah disediakan gratis di sepanjang tepi sungai tersebut. Cukup beli daging sapi (atau kambing) di supermarket terdekat, bakar dengan mentega dan irisan bawang bombay; beri bumbu garam + merica dan makan bersama saus BBQ (gak usah pake nasi!). Daging sapi dan kambing Australia itu sudah cukup lezat, sehingga tidak perlu diberi bermacam-macam bumbu.

Old Melbourne Gaol

Bukan favorit saya, tapi menurut adik saya cukup pantas untuk dikunjungi. Old Melbourne Gaol adalah penjara pertama di Australia. Di tempat ini, Robin Hood Australia Ned Kelly dipenjara dan akhirnya dihukum gantung. Yang tidak saya suka… tempatnya menyeramkan sekali. Sel-selnya yang singup dan lembab… sepertinya hantu-hantu para narapidana dari akhir abad 19 masih berkeliaran disitu.

Disana ada juga cambuk (yang telah direndam dengan air garam supaya lebih sakit kalau dipakai buat mencambuk), alat-alat hukuman bahkan cetakan kepala dari narapidana yang telah dihukum mati yang terbuat dari gips. Cetakan itu digunakan untuk penelitian perilaku kriminal yang diduga berhubungan dengan bentuk kepala.

Phillip Island Pinguin Parade


Cocok buat pecinta binatang. Setiap sore, burung pinguin yang seharian berada di laut pulang kembali ke daratan. Di Phillip Island, Anda bisa melihat langsung burung-burung inosen ini berbaris menuju daratan dan menerobos melewati kaki Anda. Ada yang masih single, ada yang bawa anaknya. Kalau Anda ingin melihat pingun dari jarak yang paling dekat, datanglah paling awal dan ambil tempat duduk yang dekat dengan tepi pantai dan dekat dengan jalur para pinguin itu.

Melbourne Festival

Diadakan tiap Oktober hingga November, gabungan festival pertanian, seni dan perdagangan. Ada kontes anjing shepherd, kontes domba, kontes kucing berbagai ras, tumpek blek jadi satu. Ada ratusan stand-stand yang menjual pernak-pernik sampai makanan. Saya dulu saya mborong peralatan sulap Mr Magic disana. Jangan pegang bulu domba yang akan naik ke pentas karena kemungkinan domba tersebut sudah disisir berjam-jam (adik saya pernah dimarahi karena pegang bulu domba).

Healesville Sanctuary

Ingin lihat Koala dalam jarak dekat atau bersalaman dengan Kangguru? Wah anda harus coba ke Healesville Sanctuary. Berbeda dengan Melbourne Zoo, di tempat ini para binatang dibiarkan hidup bebas alias tidak dikandang, sehingga anda dapat berinteraksi langsung dengan para binatang (kecuali dengan Koala karena mereka tidur 20 jam perhari).

Jangan memberi makan binatang yang ada disitu karena mereka pada umumnya memiliki diet tertentu (kakak sepupu saya pernah panik luar biasa karena memberi roti tawar kepada segerombolan burung Ibis, untungya burung tersebut tidak apa-apa). Disini juga disediakan panggangan BBQ, jadi anda bisa menutup wisata flora dan fauna dengan menyantap… fauna lain.

Nonton Teater

Melbourne dicanangkan untuk menjadi pusat hiburan teater di belahan bumi bagian selatan. Kurang lebih ekivalennya Broadway di New York dan West-End di London. Oleh karena itu disana sering ada production musical yang ngetop seperti The Phantom of The Opera, Sunset Blvd., dan Beauty and the Beast.

Nah, nonton musical adalah alternatif kegiatan malam yang menarik, mengingat sejumlah biasanya toko sudah tutup. Coba cari brosur pertunjukan yang sedang berjalan di Regent Theatre atau Princess Theatre; lalu anda bisa mulai reservasi tiket. Musical sedikit lebih casual (dan mudah lebih dicerna) daripada Opera sehingga anda tidak perlu mengenakan gaun malam atau jas pinguin. Cukup busana yang rapih dan kasual. Yang jelas matikan hp anda (dan semua benda yang mengeluarkan suara), jangan ke wc selama pertunjukan (anda dapat ke wc pada saat istirahat), serta jangan berbicara selama pertunjukan kalau tidak ingin didamprat penonton yang lain.

Jalan Tuhan

Apakah anda sudah di Jalan Tuhan? Saya pernah. Tapi yang saya maksud adalah Tuhan Street yang terletak di suburban Melbourne. Lucu buat cerita-cerita kalau anda berfoto di depan sign jalan itu, teruatam akalau anda punya terlalu banyak waktu luang. Setelah itu Anda bisa main dulu ke Chadstone Mall yang merupakan mall terbesar di Victoria. Di area foodcourtnya ada warung souvlaki (semacam kebab khas Yunani) yang enak.

Como House

Melbourne punya banyak mansion yang dulu ditinggali oleh tuan tanah kaya raya. Mengunjungi rumah-rumah megah itu Anda bisa membayangkan kemegahan gaya hidup cream society Melbourne di masa itu. Ada Rippon Lea yang pernah ditinggali janda tua pecinta film Hollywood, sampai Werribee Park yang pemiliknya bunuh diri di dapur. Tapi favorit saya adalah Como House yang berlanggam Italia. Walaupun tidak semegah Rippon Lea, tapi Como terasa lebih hidup. Tidak terasa seperti museum.

Mansion yang terdiri dari dua lantai ini hanya menghabiskan sebagian kecil areal yang luas ini. Sisanya adalah kebun, kolam, pepohonan rindang, dan lapangan luas yang ditinggali sepasang sapi. Menurut si guide, Como diambil dari Lake Como di Italia, tempat dimana si pemilik rumah, Edward Williams, melamar istrinya.

Comparison of Sustainable Development Tourism between Australia and China: Case Study Indigenous Tourism in Australia and Tourism in Dubai


Tourism is a traveling which is doing for a moment and not permanently, with the aim not for working. Someone does a tourism activity only to entertain himself in his traveling and to fulfill his various interests. There are five kinds of tourism that we can classify based on the destination. They are local tourism, regional tourism, national tourism, regional international tourism, and international tourism. In this article, we will focus on international tourism. Then we also can classify international tourism into inbound tourism and outbound tourism. Nowadays, in the great development of technology of transportation and communication, the number of international tourists got increased. The increasing number of international tourists made the United Nations as an international organization felt need to make an organization of tourism. This organization called as World Tourism Organization, then changed to be United Nations – World Tourism Organization ( UN – WTO ). UN – WTO noted that 800 millions people on the world did traveling for international tourism in 2008 with three kind of motivations: pleasure (holiday, cultures, sports, relatives, others purpose), professional (meeting, mission, business ), and other tourism motives (studies, health, transit, various ). From all the country on the world, UN – WTO also noted that France, Spain, and United States of America become the top three of the most visited country for tourism.

In international relations, international tourism is not only about moving from one to other countries. It is also about tourism policy, especially for international tourism. To make a policy, the role of the government is a must. The government should make some policy to support and facilitate the international tourism in their country. The supporting policies in international tourism can be interested for international tourists and make them to come to a country for an inbound tourism. The increasing number of international tourism can be a benefit to the destination countries. The country can get more devises from international tourism activities. The successful of international tourism in a country can be seen from some indicators. One of them is sustainable development indicator. Sustainable development is a concept of tourism which is in tourism not only consist of the effect for that moment of tourism activity, but also the continuity effect of tourism consist of economic effects, social – cultural effects and environmental effects. A country can be called as a successful country in sustainable development when it can apply the balance between economic growths, keep the long – lasting social – culture, without the damage of the environmental in the tourism process.
Level of the successful international tourism in a country shouldn’t be looked only from the number of tourists come there. We must also look from the level of sustainable development in those countries. When the numbers of international tourists are much and the country gets many devises but the environment and the social culture can’t be exist, we can’t call that the international tourism in that country is successful. The international tourism is just successful economically and not successful in general term which is also consists of the sustainable development in social – culture and environment.

For example, we can compare the international tourism activities in United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Australia. Especially, we will analyze the tourism of Dubai in UAE and indigenous tourism in Australia. The government of UAE concerns to build the great tourism destination in Dubai. The government has the purpose to pull as many as international tourists to Dubai. To reach this goal, the government built many facilities to support it. The government of UAE built many interesting tourism destinations in Dubai.



The sustainable tourism development in Dubai when it is looked from business aspect, we can conclude that this is the way to reach a goal in tourism. The government of Dubai knows well the strategy that should be applied to make Dubai as an interesting international tourism destination and increase the number of international tourists. The government can predict what kind of tourism that can pull many international tourists. In the implementation of this program, the tourism strategies are a sustainable strategy and not only apply for a moment.
To make the sustainable development in tourism of Dubai, the government applies some principals of sustainable development such as inter – generational equity, Intra - generational equity, social justice and poverty alleviation, Public participation, Environmental protection as integral component of economic development and Dealing cautiously with risk and uncertainty. Then to support those principals, the government of Dubai also planned two elements such as using renewable natural resources and accountability about the standardize of the tourism supporting programs. The government of Dubai planned three pillars of sustainability. They are economic sustainability, which is designed to give beneficial for long time; ecological sustainability, the development with the care of ecology, biology, and natural resources aspects; cultural sustainability, control the society to care about traditional values and cultures that become its identity; and local sustainability, designed to give the beneficial to the local society.
In the other side with a good plan from the government, the sustainable development is a difficult concept to be implemented in Dubai. Basically, the system in Dubai supports the sustainability to be applied. But in fact, there are many barriers in Dubai to implement the sustainable development concept planned by the government. The sustainable development concept planned is too far ranging and complicated. In addition, there are two ideologies about tourism grows in Dubai. First, the group that argues sustainable development concept as the domination of economic sustainability. The other says that sustainable development concept as the domination of ecology sustainability. To solve this problem the government of Dubai must facilitate the link between the two ideologies. The balance sustainability must be developed by the government of Dubai.

The government and the society of Dubai as the stakeholder in international tourism activities of Dubai feel that the tourism development can be implemented in harmony with the continuity system. So, Dubai started to build the supporting facilities for the international tourism programs in Dubai. The government of Dubai implemented the modern technology of tourism to solve the ecological problems causes by the international tourism activities in Dubai. The technology to support the international tourism applies right now can solve the heat problem causes by the international tourism activities.



The sustainable development implemented in Dubai is different with the sustainable development of tourism applied in Australia. When in Dubai there are some difficulties from the ideologies of the society of Dubai, the government of Australia doesn’t face this problem. The Australians are known as the people who concern about the environmental problem. Most of them care to keep the beautiful natural resources such as forests in Australia. Many people in Australia argue that the economic growth must happen as the ecological growth. Although the government of Australia concerns to increase the number of potential international tourism in Australia, the government also still concerns to keep the environmental problem. And even not only environmental problems but also keeps the sustainable development concept about social – culture.

For example, we can analyze how the sustainable development concept of tourism can be implemented in Australia especially in Indigenous Tourism of Australia. First, the development of this program by the Australian government caused some negatives opinion. Many people thought that the indigenous tourism program was the way to exploit the various potential culture of the Aboriginal. But however we can see from the sustainability perspective that the program of indigenous tourism made by the Australian government can be called as a successful tourism program in sustainable development concept.

To support the indigenous tourism program in Australia the government, federal and state, with the help from the Australian society built some cultural centers and researches of Aboriginal such as Guluyambi Aboriginal Cultural Cruise and Djabugay Community in north Queensland. Some of the Aboriginal cultural centers and researches are managed by the Aboriginal people. Of course this can improve the degree of economy of the Indigenous people. In addition, this program also can keep the very great cultures of indigenous people in Australia.

From the environmental aspect, we can see that Australia can solve the environmental problem that can be caused by the indigenous tourism program. Australia can implement the balance between the increase of the number of tourists, the economic growth and the care in environmental problem and cultures. The development of Aboriginal cultural centers and research in the forest doesn’t destroy the environment of the forest. The government of Australia and the society still concern about the forest where the Aboriginal cultural center and research built.



From the comparison about sustainable development in tourism, UAE and Australia, we can conclude that the concept of sustainable development in tourism is not a simple thing. To reach the sustainability of development in tourism, the government should make some supporting policies for tourism, especially for t e international tourism. The sustainable development is not something happen just for a moment. It is not easy to implement the sustainable development concept in tourism. Some supporting policies should be made by the government to apply the sustainable development concept in tourism.



References :

Project work paper about tourism in Dubai and Australia, class of "Tourism in International Relations " 2009

Dr. Bob McKercher. Sustainable Tourism Development – Guiding Principles For Planning and Management. Presentation to the National Seminar on Sustainable Tourism Development. Bishkek, Kyrgystan, November 5-9, 2003.

Schuler, S B. Tourism impacts on an Australian indigenous community: a Djabugay case study. 1999.

http://www.kapanlagi.com/h/0000168682.html

Australian Government Tourism White Paper (http://www.innovation.gov.au/Section/Industry/Documents/TourismWhitePaper2005.pdf)

Implementing Sustainable Tourism : Australia and France

Sustainable development has been developed in tourism issue for quite a long time. This concept was first published by The World Commission on Environment and Development on 1987, twenty-two years ago. The global changes of environment on late 1980s brought conscious to human that every activity would cause impacts to earth, so did the tourism.
Tourism could be classified as an economic activity that caused both good and bad impacts. Large amount of infrastructure developing to support the tourism in a country sometimes will cause damage to its environment. It’s too bad if the development didn’t consider damage for generations in the future. That’s why, the development which based on interest to environment reservation, both on renewable and natural resources, can reduce the damage.
Sustainable development has been defined in many ways, but the most frequently quoted definition is from Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report:
"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts:
• the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and
• the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs."
World Tourism Organization defines sustainable tourism as “tourism which leads to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be filled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems”. We could underline that sustainable development tries to balancing tourism from economical revenue and reduce the social and environmental loss. Tourism should adapt this sustainable method. Tourism uses community resources like culture, tradition, and facilitation and consumer behavior like shopping. Tourism provides opportunity for isolated society reduces the poverty, creates work field, and so on.
Sustainable tourism principals :
a.Economic Sustainability : tourism is built to provide revenues both in long and short term.
b.Ecological Sustainability : the raise of tourism must be balanced with maintenance in ecological process, biological diversity and biological resources.
c.Cultural Sustainability : tourism can increase society control among their lives based on their culture and values that they committed to. It also can raise the community identity.
d.Local Sustainability : tourism is arranged to provide advantages for local communities and also increasing their (monthly) incomes.

Sustainable tourism concept isn’t easily perceived to be applied in every country. Ecological and cultural assets have never provided competitive revenue in tourism. Sometimes, this caused problem when large amount of money spent to build infrastructure is collided with economic calculation. Tourists are not too interested in ecology and cultural based tourism so that type of tourism won’t bring great revenue. Though it is hard at start, seems like developed countries have commit to adopt sustainable tourism concept. Sustainable tourism surely takes quite a long time for its processing to show its progress. For some countries which seriously maintain the sustainable tourism, the advantage is increased significantly.
Australia and France are sample of developed country that has adopted this concept. Their potencies actually support the sustainable tourism as well, while it takes a great commitment of its government. France has its exotic culture. The government seriously explores four principals of sustainable tourism. In the other side, Australia has its exquisite local culture of Aborigines. Mostly they perform a tourism based of local culture, inbound tourism.
In implementing the sustainable tourism, France applies the principals, there are : First, economic sustainability. France develops the economy by presenting rural tour. They attract tourists with beautiful landscapes and natural resources in tourism villages that they develop. The revenue comes from tourist accommodations such as hotels, motels, food and beverages, souvenirs from local people, and many else. Rural tour could give an economical improvement to its local societies, through whole area.
Second one, ecological sustainability. France government has committed to do an environmental reservation; it showed while they developed tourism transportation. The lack of oil resource, which has deal with fuel consumption, forced France government to improve an eco-friendly technology in transportation. They perform hybrid taxi that uses water as its fuel. They also suggest citizens to start using bicycle both in town and village. Right now, we can easily find bicycle rentals in every public corner in Paris for example.
Third one, cultural sustainability. French (language) is one of the cultural products that remain still and protected. French people are well known as extremely loyal to their language that they don’t speak English as well. We all know that English now is a universal language that people all over the world start using it. But the exquisite of French has been improved to appeal tourists having such a short course of learning French. The government invites people to learn French as one of tourism activity in France. French usually claimed as sexy and high class. It invites people’s curiosity to learn French from its origin. France government also commits a great effort to build reservations for its heritage, historical buildings such as Cathedral Saint-Etienne, Eiffel Tower, Arc de Triomphe and Louvre Museum .

The success of Australia government in improving their tourism, to optimal local conscious has brought great impact for their image around the world. It mostly because of the unique and charisma of Aborigines: the local tribe in Australia. They have suffered from political discrimination and being treated unwell. But as the government claimed Aborigines existence, they started to invent the tourism by exploring the culture and heritage of Aborigines.
The life of Aborigines has increased well, that they were isolated, now they could provide a better life, like having the same opportunity in work field, national election, job training, education, and many more. They become the object of tourism and also the subject that they can contribute their skills to amuse tourists who visit their village. They become tour leaders, build a cultural center of Aborigines which maintained by local people.
Here are some examples of Australia government success in developing cultural based tourism.
• To make human resources more optimal
Australia government found out that indigenous tourism need well-trained and capable human resources. The government started developing the Aborigines to be more educated so that they could have better living standard, as well as the white people did.
Aborigines get involved in many ways, for one reason, developing the tourism. They also let the world conscious about their existence. They have been treated well like white people. The got opportunity to access the education, work field, public service, and so on. Some of the cultural center of Aborigines are :
a.Brambuk Aboriginal Culture , is a local name of Grampians National Park which is located in Victoria. It is a cultural centre of Aborigines, from the Koorie community.
b.Bunjilaka, is a culture museum of Aborigines which is located in Melbourne.
Indigenous tourism concept which elaborate the government and Aborigines capability ever caused a controversy that the government is perceived only to have exploitative deed about Aborigines heritage to maximize their revenue in tourism. But recently they could state that the involvement of Aborigines in indigenous tourism is also significant. For example, Brambuk is role by whole Aborigines in that area. The biro, travel agent, culture center, are held on by Aborigines, Kepa Kurl is a travel agent which owned by Doc Reynolds and Gail Reynolds Adamson who are truly Aborigines descendant. Kepa Kurl become one of the most influential travel agent in Australia.
• Processing of natural resources – utilization of land.
Building indigenous products needs capability and promising resources to role this business. Australia government really supports Aboriginal Tourism Australia in developing the Financial Management Guide – the Business of Indigenous Tourism to start this new way of tourism. Infrastructures are built to support this case. They make up tourism objects to attract tourists. Cultural centers are also built as a vessel for communities, tourist, and Aborigines to share things and to interact.
Those cultural centers and indigenous tourism objects have impacts for the environment. Infrastructure like roads, bridges, electricity and water line, is developed to support indigenous tourism. Australia utilizes the natural resources to build cultural centers as one way of optimizing its land. Land usage requires policy so that the sustainable concept can be applied in tourism and still can save the environment. Several policies that Australian government made in order to protect the environment are:
a. 77.000.000 hectare or approximately 10% from whole land in Australia is protected.
b. Build national parks all over the country. “National parks and world heritage areas are the heart of this system and are essential to Australia’s tourism industry. There were 84 million visits to national parks in Australia in 2001–02, contributing an estimated $54 million in direct revenue for park management agencies, including from the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park” .
c. For Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, Australia government has deal an MOU with Queensland district to keep the quality of its sea area, also known as Reef Quality Water Protection Plan. In 2006, a review is published to increase the protection for this area. It said that government will stick to that program until 2013. The program works out effectively that they enlarge the zone from 4.5% up to 33.3% .

Indonesia and Malaysia Sustainable Tourism


Tourism in modern day has achieved the finest form ever. There is so many country in the world has become vital part for their economic development. Countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Italy, and so on put their tourism program as one of their main economic activity. There is so many job and was created by tourism industries. Because so many countries has dependent largely by tourism industry there is several countries try to expand their tourism industry and finding some innovations to attract tourist to came to their countries. Tourists have higher levels of disposable income and greater leisure time and they are also better-educated and have more sophisticated tastes. And they want something different and unique from what they have seen everyday. Because that, several countries trying to offer something new and different from the others to attract more tourist.
Indonesia and Malaysia both it has so many object spot for tourism activity, but in recent years we have found if Malaysia is more successful to attract foreign tourist to visit their country than Indonesia. It was become more easily to understand if what happened is Indonesia became the most favorite country for tourists to make a holiday. Because Indonesia has so many great places to attend than Malaysia, we can say place like Toba Lake, Bunaken Sea reef, Borobudur (the greatest Buddhist temple in Southeast Asia region), Prambanan temple, and surely Bali with the exotic Kuta Beach and so many place which it must to be mentioned but it can’t because there is lot kind a place. But the reality is Malaysia in 2007 has been visited by more than 20 million foreign tourists from so many countries in the world and holds the tenth ranking. And Indonesia is lying in bottom in 37 ranking from 50 countries in the world with more than 5 million tourists. What can make Malaysia is more attractive and become famous destination than Indonesia?
Sustainable tourism
Sustainable tourism is the answer. Malaysia since 90’s era, when Prime minister Mahattir Muhammad still rule Malaysia, has decided to make Malaysia economic activities just not come from their industry, mine, and agricultural. Creative economic such as like tourism industry must to expand and maintain to develop for made an integration economic activity. And then central government in Malaysia tries to make a new concept of their tourist industries, and then make their concept to be accepted by their subordinate. It was their decision to make the concept of their tourism industries as “Malaysia is truly Asia”, a concept which is we have been heard and seen not only in television, but every mass media like newspaper, billboard and so on. They had managing and planning the integration between tourism industries and other industries. It had been known if Malaysia has a medical tourism as one option for foreign tourist to visit Malaysia. And Malaysia too, was making their Petronas Tower as one favorite place to visit, Petronas tower is the main headquarter of Petronas inc. Company which is be owned by Malaysian Gov. And it was clear the main objective why Petronas tower must be built so high it was to attract more people to see Malaysia.
Malaysia is now one of destination place to making medical tourism in the world beside India, Thailand, Singapore, South Africa and Cuba. Medical tourism (also called medical travel, health tourism or global healthcare) is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the mass media to describe the rapidly-growing practice of traveling across international borders to obtain health care. Such services typically include elective procedures as well as complex specialized surgeries such as joint replacement (knee/hip), cardiac surgery, dental surgery, and cosmetic surgeries. However, virtually every type of health care, including psychiatry, alternative treatments, convalescent care and even burial services are available. As a practical matter, providers and customers commonly use informal channels of communication-connection-contract, and in such cases this tends to mean less regulatory or legal oversight to assure quality and less formal recourse to reimbursement or redress, if needed. We can see if so many Indonesia people prefer to check their health condition in Malaysia than in Indonesia. It was been some irony, because a lot of Malaysian doctor study in Indonesia.
Malaysia tourism, is be known too by their cultural heritage tourism. They can accommodate between the new world which is have more sophisticated from and modern shape and old world which is still lay the traditional value and pure form of people culture. Malaysia has Putra Jaya, a modern city which is has been design as new capital of Malaysia Federation and Malaysia still manage with carefully about their old capital in Kuala Lumpur and reserve their old building which had been built by British government in past.
And Malaysia is became so successful to adapt their concept in reality and earning so many profits of that. Malaysia is truly Asia not only has been heard by people in Asia but in Middle East, Europe and America too. And Malaysia has been practicing what we know as sustainable tourism. But before we discuss about sustainable tourism, for first we must know about the definition about it. The definition about sustainable tourism is, "Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, and biological diversity and life support systems . And in different definition is be mentioned as, sustainable development implies "meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987) .
If we see from the definition about sustainable tourism, we can see if Indonesia government doesn’t too care about sustainable tourism. We can conclude this based on several examples in everyday life, how many laws Indonesia government had been made for protect their culture and arts, and how much money Indonesia government have been spent every year for promoting about Indonesia tourism. Although we could see if Indonesia government lacking attention for its tourism industry and sustainable tourism program, in recent years now they looking to starting more seriously to develop their tourism industries. Since then we can see if Indonesia government is was came too late to implement what we called sustainable tourism.
Sustainable tourism in Indonesia just arises in several provincial region like Bali and Yogyakarta. Only in two provincial these we can see if tourism industry had been accommodated with the cultural heritage, environment development and sustainable development of socio culture of its people. It was easy to understand why the government in those two, giving their attention for tourism industry. Bali and Yogyakarta is not central of economic business like Jakarta or Batam, both didn’t have plenty natural resources like Papua, Aceh or Kalimantan provincial. It makes them to trying to dependence their main economic activity from tourism industry. As we can see now, Yogyakarta is the most famous central education in Indonesia, and has lot of education tourism. And Bali it was the most famous destination to be visited by foreign tourist, thanks to their exotic places like Kuta Beach and their rich cultural heritage.
But in other provincial in Indonesia, we can’t see what happened in Yogyakarta and Bali. Short of infrastructure, cultural challenge, and lacking attention from government had become obstacle from other provincial region to expand their tourism industry. It was been clearly to understand, if Indonesia central government doesn’t have major concept to accommodate all of their tourism industry in all region in Indonesia. Every region must be making their concept without cooperation between other provincial regions. It is very different situation happened in Malaysia, central government in Malaysia accommodated every interest of all federal government in Malaysia and combining it in one grand major concept.
In Indonesia, tourism industry didn’t receive much attention by government. Indonesia government seems more let the industry growing without right guidance. As examples, in many cases like happened in Puncak West Java, government let peoples to built so many villa and cottage and it was making decrease the quality of Puncak environment. Lacking attention too, it was be shown by the short of money Indonesia government spends for tourism and maintain their old place or historical place in many cities in Indonesia. In many museums in Indonesia, conditions of these museums are very bad and poorly. However, Indonesia government was realize what became their drawbacks in past, and in recent years they was try to giving more intentions for tourism industry. We can see if Indonesia government starting to promoting the Indonesia tourism in abroad, starting to built infrastructure of tourism, starting to making laws and spends more money than before for promoting Indonesia tourism.
Comparison between Indonesia sustainable tourism and Malaysia sustainable tourism like we had seen here, had aiming us to one conclusion. Malaysia government is more care and giving more attention to make their tourism industry to arise to equals like tourism industry in developed states like France, Italy or Spain. And since Indonesia has more potentially places and having rich cultural heritage, Indonesia government cannot expand and using their advantage to make their tourism industry more attractive than their adversary.

AGRICULCUTRAL TOURISM; A NEW THAILAND WAY ON SUSTAINABLE TOURISM STRATEGY?


You don’t become an ecotourist operator by just having nature as your destination…what do you do with waste? What do you do with hazardous chemicals? How do you transport? Do you buy locally?…Are you encouraging wildlife? What are you doing with your sewage? It is these kind of nitty gritty things that will make the difference between eco-tourism being a force for the environment or simply being another threat.[1]

Sustainable tourism is tourism development that avoids damage to the environment, economy and cultures of the locations where it takes place. The aim of sustainable tourism is to ensure that development is a positive experience for local people; tourism companies; and tourists themselves.

But how can sustainable tourism be achieved? Evidence suggests that it requires co-operation between concerned companies and the managers of destinations. It does not, however, require a marked interest from consumers. Some companies have suggested that they will only take steps to achieve sustainable tourism if they recognize a clear 'market demand' for holidays that are overtly 'green' or 'environmentally friendly'.[2]

Data from WTTC (World Tourism and Travel Center)[3] however, has indicated that few tourists want holidays that are 'green' within the mass tourism market; and that holidays that are 'green' may repeat the pitfalls of ecotourism. It may not be profitable or sustainable to encourage market demand for 'green' tourism as this demand may not occur, and also may not lead to sustainable tourism.

Instead, evidence has suggested that sustainable tourism does not have to be advertised as environmentally or culturally sensitive in order to succeed. Research has indicated that profits may be increased simply by adopting some general environmental principles, such as recycling waste, planning for long-term sustainability, and seeking local partnerships for resort management. If these actions result in cleaner, less crowded, holiday resorts, then they are in effect sustainable tourism without being labelled so.

Why Thailand?

Thailand amounts to more than just beaches and sandy seaside resorts. It boasts lush jungles and forests in which distinctive hill tribes still live.

But how can companies and resort managers achieve this kind of success? This question is more controversial. One proposal has been to increase the vertical integration of tourism companies, so that individual companies have greater control over the marketing of holidays, transportation of tourists, and then management of resorts. Such integration may help avoid the disappointment and despoliation of resorts that occurs when tourists interested in conventional mass tourism are sent to sites perhaps better suited to bird watchers or hill walkers, as has occurred in Corfu[4]. But this suggestion, however, is occasionally opposed as it may imply that smaller tourism companies cannot enter the market[5]. Furthermore, reducing competition from smaller companies may result in reducing the pressure for lower prices of holidays.

Do you think the distinction between sustainable tourism and ecotourism is useful? Why?

In Thailand these days, tourists don't have to travel far to see the exotic 'hill tribes.' Photographs of these ethnic minorities can be seen on expensive packages of food on sale in Bangkok's 5-star hotels. The smiling faces on parcels of 'Hill Tribe Gourmet Coffee', flowers and fruit brighten up Bangkok shops, and allow tourists the chance to buy goods actually produced by hill farmers. Few shoppers realise, however, that products like these are part of a wider programme to reduce opium cultivation in northern Thailand, and to bring development to the 'hill tribes.' Fewer still appreciate that tourism's impacts on agriculture may be far greater than commonly thought[6].

'Tourism and agriculture' are usually far from people's minds when they go on their holidays. Yet the relationships between tourism and agriculture can be important and far-reaching for local communities. The impacts can be greatest in locations where tourism is growing rapidly, and where tourism offers an alternative source of income to traditional cultivation. Indeed, some people suggest the indirect effects of tourism on agriculture and its implications for society may be more significant and threatening than many direct visual impacts such as footpath erosion or hotel construction.

Divided between those who believe that tourism impacts positively on local development, and those who believe it does not, optimists argue that tourism assists development by reducing the pressures of farming on local environments by providing farmers with an alternative source of income, and by educating farmers in the non-agricultural economy. Pessimists, however, suggest that tourism only exacerbates social divisions and may even increase environmental degradation by disrupting traditional land management[7]. Pessimists also suggest that introducing tourism into farming areas will lead inevitably to the construction of resorts and hotels that will bring new destructive forms of mass tourism.

Evidence for either viewpoint is mixed. In the Khumbu region of Nepal near Mount Everest, for example[8], research has shown that agricultural production has fallen since the introduction of tourism in the 1950s, and that tourism employed at least one individual from each household for up to 10 months a year. These figures suggest that tourism has reduced agricultural pressure on the local environment, and also contributed to local development.

Critics, however, suggest that tourism in Khumbu only succeeded because of the adventurous, entrepreneurial spirit of the local Sherpa people. Tourism may therefore have been successful because it came at the right time and place. Other ethnic groups in different locations may not fare so well. In western Nepal, for example, the establishment of the Lake Rara National Park resulted in the forcible expulsion of several hundred Chhetri people from their traditional highlands onto the lowlands. The Chhetri found this transition difficult because they received less land than they previously owned, and they were seen as unwelcome newcomers by other ethnic groups. As a result of such examples, the German anthropologist Christoph F├╝rer-Haimendorf suggested ethnic groups may be divided into 'adventurous traders' (such as the Sherpa) who can benefit well from new commercial opportunities like tourism, and 'cautious cultivators' (such as the Chhetri) who prefer traditional agriculture[9].

Tourism may also impact on the type of agriculture, or the production of specific foodstuffs. In Bali, for example, the practice of taking tourists night fishing may have increased the frequency of fishing trips. Similarly, in southern China, tourists are paying to see the ancient tradition of using cormorant birds to catch fish. The cormorants' feet are tied by a long rope to a bamboo raft, and then are plunged into rivers in order to catch fish. On returning to the surface, the fishermen forcibly remove the fish from the birds' throats. Both fishing practices may have been replaced by more modern techniques if not for tourism.

Such links between tourism and the nature of agricultural production are more difficult to prove at a larger or national scale. Tourism is just one of many economic trends that influence agricultural production, and tourism marketing may be able to transform expectations rather than actually produce change. In northern Thailand, for example, many tourists fear that trekking tours offering tourists the opportunity to smoke opium may increase the production of opium in Thailand. In fact the demand from tourism is generally small, and can be easily supplied by trade flows from Burma and Laos. Similarly, on other 'jungle treks', tourists are often promised 'snake soup' or other local delicacies to give the impression of authenticity. But sometimes the guides have to improvise when they can't catch any snakes[10].

Tourism And The Mien

The most accurate impacts of tourism on agriculture can only be identified by studying the responses of specific villages. One study of tourism in northern Thailand focused on the Mien (or 'Yao') ethnic group[11]. The Mien migrated to Thailand from Laos about 60 years ago, and are generally considered to be 'adventurous traders' because of their historic ability to trade opium and silverware[12]. The Mien are characterized by the dark blue turbans and tunics worn by women, and their bright red woollen collars. Today, the Mien no longer cultivate opium, but instead grow traditional crops like rice and maize with new cash crops such as soyabeans. In one prominent Mien village in Thailand, near the 'Golden Triangle' where Burma, Laos and Thailand meet, tourism is now an important supplement to agriculture.

During the tourism season, tourists arrive every day in air conditioned buses to look at the village and buy souvenirs. Women villagers have set up bamboo stalls near the village entrance, where they sell embroideries, wooden ornaments, and cheap silverware bought at local markets in Northen Thailand. The men of the village drive trucks to transport tourists to the village and other attractions nearby. The village is a good example of a village where tourism has grown rapidly, yet the tourism is not always appreciated by the tourists.

Despite the hubbub surrounding tourism, an economic survey revealed that only 15 percent of the 120 households in the village made more than half of their total income from tourism. Most income came from driving trucks to transport tourists and other travellers. For all households, tourism contributed an average of only 25 percent of total income. The most important source of income in the village came from agriculture, and particularly from cash crops such as soyabeans. Yet, one third of village households did not--or were not able to--earn money from tourism.

Villagers explained why some households adopted tourism and others did not. Households only adopted tourism when they had the spare time to attend stalls, and when they had the cash to buy souvenirs from markets. Many villagers did not have spare time and money because they were too busy growing crops and cultivating land. Usually, the people who looked after the stalls were elderly women too old to work in the fields, or young mothers who were busy with their children. Before the arrival of tourism, many of these women stayed at home all day looking after children and embroidering clothes. Tourism has given these women the ability to continue these activities, yet also have the chance of earning money at the same time.

The impacts on environment were also less than optimists had hoped. Families who profited from tourism used the money to hire agricultural labour from other villages, and therefore increase the production of crops on land that they might otherwise have left fallow. Meanwhile, farmers who did not have the ability to enter the tourism market continued to use land extremely frequently in order to increase their income. The findings suggest that tourism has helped individuals in the village to become richer, but that agricultural activity has actually increased as a result. In addition, it suggests that the term 'adventurous traders' may not be applied uniformly to all members of an ethnic group, and that instead each group may include both entrepreneurs and 'cautious cultivators'[13].

But perhaps most importantly, the study suggested that tourism's impact depends largely on the nature of tourism. The rapid growth of tourism in the Golden Triangle has encouraged some investors to build bungalows and flower gardens aimed at weekend travellers from Bangkok, or a more luxurious form of tourism than the current travellers[14]. Villagers earn large lump sums if they sell their agricultural land to investors. But the money may in fact be below market prices and also remove their ability to produce food. Village elders appreciate the problem. 'We don't want people to sell land because it will mean they can only earn money by working in factories or cities. We must have land, or else we can't eat', said one village leader.


Tourism therefore has a variety of impacts on agriculture and these differ between local cultures and according to the type of tourism. The most serious impacts occur when tourism prevents local communities from conducting agriculture. But in less extreme forms of tourism, there are still winners and losers in the process of development.

Often the changes occurring to agricultural economies are too large scale and complex to attribute purely to tourism. But this should not prevent us from being vigilant or aware of the potential impacts of tourism on particular groups or from specific projects. In Thailand, the government uses pictures of smiling faces as a way to increase the sale of agricultural produce to tourists. But behind these smiling faces are a complex series of social and economic changes which impact on poor farming communities, and which ultimately may do little to assist them.



[1] (Figgis, P., 1993. Ecotourism: A Range of Views, in Down to Earth Planning for an Out-Of-The-Ordinary Industry, Paper presented at the South Australian Eco-tourism Forum, August 19-20, Adelaide) downloaded with www.proxy.com

[2] Sources: FOC, 2002, WTO, 2000 & 2002, UNWTO, 2007, www.risingtide.co.uk , 2004, UN, 2003, Gov't of Canada, 2005, Science Musuem, 2006)

[7] Tourism and agricultural development in Thailand, paper found on Annals of Tourism Research, Volume 22, Number 4, 1995 , pp. 877-900(24) downloaded by

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/els/01607383/1995/00000022/00000004/art00019

[10] WTO (2002), Asia Pacific Ministerial Conference on Sustainable Development in Ecotourism, Male, Maldives, 11-13 Feb. 2002, Final Report, World Tourism Organization,paper on http://www.uneptie.org/PC/tourism/ecotourism/home.htm#whatisecotour

[13] : Tourism and agricultural development in Thailand., Forsyth, T. J. Found on http://www.cababstractsplus.org/abstracts/Abstract.aspx?AcNo=19961806094.thaitourismjournal

[14] we-should-shift-focus-to-agriculture-and-tourism article found on http://thaicrisis.wordpress.com/2009/03/15/

Kamis, 26 Agustus 2010

PROFILE


PROFILE

Risti Indriyani (22) was born in Sleman, on February 1988, her residence is now at Kowanan, Sidoagung, Godean, Sleman, Yogyakarta, 55284 Indonesia with mobile phone: +628566204987 and instead of it, She could be reached on littlegirlbigdream_me@yahoo.com and littlegirlinbigdream.blogspot.com. Her language mastery is English (advance), Spanish (Good) and also French (basic).

EMPLOYMENT RECORD
• July 2007 – July 2009 as Tutor for Research Class SMP Muhammadyah 4 Yogyakarta
• June 2008 - Sept 2009 as Research Assistant for Collaborative Research between Sosial and Politics Department GMU and Monash University Australia.
• January 2010- April 2010 as Protocolair Staff Internship Project by Yogyakarta Presidential Palace Gedung Agung.

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
· She spent middle school for 3 years, from 2003 to 2006, where she started her study in SMA 2 Yogyakarta and continued to taking international relations science as her major study with CGPA 3.76 (out of 4.00).

SCHOLARSHIPS, GRANTS, INTERPRETING, AND INTERNATIONAL FACILITATION
· In 2006, received scholarship from Ministry of Youth and Sport Indonesia for exchange student programme and training in Port Dickson, Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur and carried out entrepreneur field work at Kampong Kanchong Darat, Banting, Malaysia.
· In 2007, 1st winner of Annual Essay Competition, ANNES UGM, held by SP2MP DUE LIKE Program Gadjah Mada University · In 2008, trusted as Indonesia Youth Representative to proclaim “Anti-Crime Declaration” in front of Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tan Wei Jeck Seng, in Malaysia International Exchange Program (MIYP) 2008 on Crime-Free Generation in Kuala Lumpur and Melacca.
· In 2009, appointed as international Facilitator by UNESCO in Collaboration with the State Ministry of Youth and Sport of the Republic of Indonesia and the National Commission of Indonesia to UNESCO of the Ministry of National Education, together with Local Government of Banten and West Java Province on International Conference on The Role of Youth in Establishing Peace Towards a Future World Without Violent Radicalization.
· In 2009, trusted as Gadjah Mada University Representative for Pertamina Indonesia Youth Program.

ORGANIZATION EXPERIENCE
· Head of Education Division for Kandang Menjangan Child Center - a mental recovery school for children of Krapyak Kulon in 2006
· Activist of Peace Generation Yogyakarta from 2007 - Present
· Secretary of ULob (UGM Loves Batik Community) from 2007-2009
· Reporter for Majalah Kabare –from 2006 to 2007



Rabu, 18 Agustus 2010

Fakta Sejarah Dan Analisa Kepentingan Di Balik Kisruh Hubungan Indonesia-Malaysia
Hubungan Indonesiadengan Malaysia akhir-akhir ini tampak semakin memanas. Intervensiwilayah sekitar perbatasan laut oleh Angkatan Laut Diraja Malaysia,kekalahan Indonesia atas kepemilikan pulau Sipadan dan Ligitan diMahkamah Internasional, penganiayaan sejumlah TKI oleh beberapa oknumwarga Malaysia, klaim obyek seni dan budaya Indonesia oleh pihakMalaysia dalam rangka promosi wisata kunjungan ke sana, dan yangterakhir adalah pelecehan lagu kebangsaan Indonesia Raya oleh pihakyang tidak dikenal, adalah sederetan fakta-fakta yang menunjukkan adaupaya terencana dan sistematis untuk memperburuk hubungan kedua negara.

Konfrontasi dengan "Ganyang Malaysia"

Sejarahmencatat hubungan buruk tersebut bermula dari semangat antikolonialisme dan imperialisme Presiden RI pertama Ir. Soekarno yangbegitu bergelora, ditunjang dengan rasa nasionalisnya yang tinggi,membuat Bung Karno begitu marah ketika mengetahui Malaysia berencanamembentuk federasi Malaysia – dengan menarik Sabah, Serawak, Brunei danSingapura ke dalam persemakmuran Inggris Raya (Commont Wealth)bersama-sama dengan Persekutuan Tanah Malaya – setelah sebelumnyadiberi kemerdekaan oleh Inggris tanggal 31 Agustus 1963. Bagi BungKarno hal itu sama dengan memberi peluang kepada imperialis Inggrisuntuk berkuasa di Kalimantan Utara, dan berarti bisa membahayakankemerdekaan Indonesia.

Kemarahan Bung Karno pun semakin memuncakdisebabkan tindakan para demonstran anti Indonesia di Kuala Lumpur padatanggal 18 September 1963 – dua hari setelah pembentukan FederasiMalaysia oleh Inggris tanggal 16 September 1963 – yang merobek-robekgambarnya dan memaksa Perdana Menteri Malaysia pada waktu itu, TengkuAbdul Rahman, untuk menginjak-injak gambar Garuda Pancasila. Rasanasionalisme Bung Karno terusik, maka lahirlah semangat memerangiMalaysia dengan "Ganyang Malaysia"-nya, yang kemudian menjadi sebuahpeperangan, konfrontasi terhadap Malaysia yang berlangsung hingga masaakhir jabatannya.

Reformasi dan Soekarnoisme

Padatanggal 21 Mei 1998 Presiden Soeharto lengser dari kekuasaannya, danmenyerahkannya kembali kepada rakyat dalam hal ini MajelisPermusyawaratan Rakyat (MPR) yang kemudian menunjuk B.J. Habibie, yangwaktu menjabat sebagai Wakil Presiden, sebagai Presiden Ad-interimsampai dilaksanakannya Pemilu tahun 1999. Lengsernya Soeharto menandaiberakhirnya era kekuasaan Orde Baru dan memasuki era Reformasi, yangmerupakan hasil gerakan mahasiswa Indonesia yang dimulai sejak tahunsembilan puluhan.

Perlu diperhatikan bahwa konfrontasi terhadapMalaysia berakhir ketika Jenderal Soeharto berkuasa, dan selanjutnyahubungan baik dengan Malaysia terus dibina oleh persahabatan yang manisantara Soeharto sebagai Presiden RI dengan Mahathir Mohammad sebagaiPerdana Menteri Malaysia pada waktu itu. Tercatat pembentukan ASEAN(South East Asian Nation) atau organisasi bangsa-bangsa di AsiaTenggara diprakarsai oleh kedua pemimpin ini.

Pada tanggal 7 Juni1999 diselenggarakan Pemilihan Umum (Pemilu) ke-8 sepanjang sejarahpolitik kita, dan pertama sepanjang sejarah reformasi. Meskipun Pemilubaru saja diselenggarakan dua tahun sebelumnya, yakni tahun 1997, namununtuk memperoleh pengakuan atau kepercayaan dari publik, termasuk duniainternasional, karena pemerintahan dan lembaga-lembaga lain yangmerupakan produk Pemilu 1997 sudah dianggap tidak dipercaya. Hal inikemudian dilanjutkan dengan penyelenggaraan Sidang Umum MPR untukmemilih presiden dan wakil presiden yang baru, di mana dipilih danditetapkan Abdurrahman Wahid sebagai Presiden ke-4 RI dengan MegawatiSoekarnoputri sebagai Wakil Presiden.

Dalam kampanye politikbeberapa partai politik yang berfaham nasionalis, dimunculkan kembalisemangat Soekarnoisme. Di mana-mana gambar mantan presiden pertama ituditampilkan berikut cerita-cerita heroik dan rasa nasionalisnya yangtinggi, serta semangatnya yang sangat anti penjajahan, kolonialisme danimperialisme, termasuk cerita tentang konfrontasi Indonesia terhadapMalaysia. Melihat hal itu beberapa pihak mengkhawatirkan terbukanyaluka lama di kedua belah pihak mengenai hubungan buruk di masa lalu.

Kasus tapal batas teritorial negara

Kasuspulau Ambalat sebetulnya merupakan kasus lama yang berawal pada tahun1967 ketika pertama kali diadakan pertemuan teknis hukum laut antaraIndonesia dan Malaysia di mana kedua belah pihak akhirnya membentukkesepakatan (kecuali Sipadan dan Ligitan diberlakukan sebagai keadaanstatus quo).

Pada tanggal 27 Oktober 1969 dilakukan penandatanganan perjanjian antara Indonesia dan Malaysia yang disebut sebagai Perjanjian Tapal Batas Kontinental Indonesia - Malaysia,di mana kedua negara masing-masing melakukan ratifikasi pada 7 November1969. Namun tidak lama berselang, masih pada tahun 1969, Malaysiamembuat peta baru yang memasukan pulau Sipadan, Ligitan dan Batu Puteh(Pedra blanca) ke dalam wilayahnya, tentunya hal ini membingungkanIndonesia dan Singapura, dan pada akhirnya Indonesia maupun Singapuratidak mengakui peta baru Malaysia tersebut.

Kemudian pada tanggal 17 Maret 1970 kembali ditandatangani Persetujuan Tapal batas Laut Indonesia dan Malaysia,akan tetapi kembali pada tahun 1979 pihak Malaysia kembali membuat petabaru mengenai tapal batas kontinental dan maritim dengan serta mertasecara sepihak membuat perbatasan maritimnya sendiri dengan memasukanblok maritim Ambalatke dalam wilayahnya yaitu dengan memajukan koordinat 4° 10' arah utaramelewati pulau Sebatik. Tentu peta ini pun sama nasibnya denganterbitan Malaysia pada tahun 1969, yakni diprotes dan tidak diakui olehpihak Indonesia.

Dengan berkali-kali pihak Malaysia membuat peta sendiri padahal setelah adanya Perjanjian Tapal Batas Kontinental Indonesia - Malaysia tahun 1969 dan Persetujuan Tapal batas Laut Indonesia dan Malaysia tahun 1970, bagi masyarakat Indonesia melihatnya sebagai bentuk ekspansi dari pihak Malaysia terhadap wilayah Indonesia.

TindakanMalaysia tidak hanya sampai di situ, tetapi berlanjut dengan aksi-aksisepihak seperti menangkap dan mengusir nelayan Indonesia dari wilayahAmbalat, dan pemerintah Malaysia ikut-ikutan memberikan hak menambangkepada perusahaan asing di Ambalat. Masalah tapal batas wilayah disekitar pulau Sipadan, Ligitan, Batu Puteh dan Ambalat ini berujungkepada ketegangan-ketegangan yang terus terjadi antara angkatan lautkedua negara di daerah perbatasan laut tersebut.

Sebagaipuncaknya adalah keputusan Mahkamah Internasional di Den Haag, Belanda,dalam sidangnya pada tanggal 17 Desember 2002 yang memutuskan bahwadalam kasus sengketa Pulau Sipadan dan Pulau Ligitan, Indonesiadinyatakan kalah dari Malaysia, dan Malaysia berhak atas Pulau Sipadandan Pulau Ligitan dengan dasar efektivitas. Dalam beberapa hal,Mahkamah Internasional menerima argumentasi Indonesia bahwa PulauSipadan dan Pulau Ligitan tidak pernah masuk dalam kesultanan Suluseperti yang diklaim Malaysia. Namun, di sisi lain, MahkamahInternasional mengakui klaim-klaim Malaysia bahwa mereka telahmelakukan administrasi serta pengelolaan konservasi alam di kedua pulautersebut. (www.gatra.com)

BlokAmbalat kembali memanas dalam tahun ini ketika beberapa kali kapalperang Diraja Malaysia memasuki wilayah teritorial milik Indonesia,yang berhasil diusir oleh kapal perang Angkatan Laut RI. Tindakanmemanas-manasi dari pihak Malaysia ini, masih ditanggapi dengan kepaladingin oleh Pemerintah Indonesia, sementara masyarakat Indonesiamelihatnya sebagai sebuah kelemahan kita terhadap tindakansewenang-wenang pemerintah Malaysia.

Insiden-insiden lain sebagai pemicu

Istilah"Ganyang Malaysia" kembali mencuat setelah dipicu oleh aksi pemukulanwasit karate asal Indonesia Donald Peter Luther Kolobita, Jumat(24/8/2007) di Kuala lumpur. Sekelompok pengunjuk rasa kemudianmembakar bendera Malaysia di Medan dan Jakarta, Rabu (29/8). Aksi inikemudian meluas ke seluruh Indonesia diiringi desakan agar PemerintahIndonesia memutuskan hubungan diplomatik dengan Malaysia. Kejadian inimengagetkan pemerintah kedua negara, namun permasalahan berhasildiselesaikan, dan keempat polisi diraja Malaysia itu dinyatakan sudahdiskors.

Berita mengenai penganiayaan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia diluar negeri sepertinya sudah menjadi makanan sehari-hari di media-mediakita. TKI yang bermaksud mencari rezeki di negeri orang ini, padaakhirnya hanya pulang dengan penderitaan, diperkosa, dianiaya, danbahkan sampai meninggal dunia.

Kasus penganiayaan TKI di Malaysiatermasuk yang paling sering. Penistaan warga Indonesia di Malaysia,khususnya yang berprofesi sebagai pembantu rumah tangga, seringkaliberakhir tragis seperti penganiayaan hingga cacat bahkan meninggaldunia. Sedangkan rekaman film mengenai pemukulan orang yang diduga TKIdisebuah tempat yang diduga kantor polisi Diraja Malaysia, semakinmemanaskan keadaan. Padahal penyebaran rekaman film ini perlu dicurigaiseperti ada unsur kesengajaan untuk semakin mempertajam kebencian kitakepada Malaysia.

Insiden lainnya adalah klaim obyek seni danbudaya Indonesia oleh pihak-pihak di Malaysia (pemerintah danswasta). Dari klaim lagu Rasa Sayange, seni Batik, musik Gamelan, tariReog Ponorogo, dan lain-lain, termasuk yang terakhir pemuatan seni tariPendet dari Bali dalam iklan promosi pariwisata mereka. Perludiketahui, berdasarkan sebuah informasi dari warga Malaysia sendiri,ternyata mereka tidak begitu jelas mengenai permasalahan klaim-klaimobyek seni dan budaya Indonesia oleh negaranya. Bahkan hubungan antaramereka dengan beberapa mahasiswa Indonesia di Malaysia baik-baik sajadan tidak pernah ada masalah.

Analisa pihak-pihak berkepentingan di balik kisruh hubungan Indonesia-Malaysia

Dalamsetiap sengketa dan pertikaian di dunia ini, baik antar negara maupuninternal sebuah negara, selalu melibatkan kepentingan-kepentinganbanyak pihak, baik asing maupun lokal. Faktor ekonomi dan politikbiasanya menjadi alasan campur tangan pihak-pihak tersebut untuk ikutmemancing di air keruh dan mengambil manfaat apabila persengketaanberubah menjadi pertikaian dan peperangan.

Sekarang, marilah kitamelakukan analisa dengan melihat faktor ekonomi dan politik, sertabeberapa kemungkinan yang akan terjadi apabila pihak-pihak yangberkepentingan ikut melakukan manuver agar maksudnya terealisasi.

Pihak-pihakyang kemungkinan ikut mengambil manfaat apabila Indonesia-Malaysiabenar-benar bertikai dan terjadi peperangan, adalah:

1. Malaysia sendiri.

Malaysiamempunyai kepentingan dengan sumber-sumber minyak, gas bumi dansumber-sumber hayati laut di wilayah laut Indonesia yang sangatkaya. Batas wilayah negara di laut mempunyai kekuatan hukum yang sangatlemah, karena sebagai warisan penjajah batas-batas daerah jajahan dilaut tidak ditetapkan dengan pasti antara Belanda sebagai penjajahIndonesia dengan Inggris sebagai penjajah Malaysia. Akhirnya digunakandata sejarah mengenai batas-batas wilayah kerajaan di masa lalu sebagaidasar, dan ini juga masih bisa diperdebatkan.

Selain itu sejarahmencatat mengenai adanya Gagasan pembentukan "Melayu Raya" ketikaIndonesia-Filipina-Malaysia berencana mendirikan Maphilindo, singkatandari Malaysia-Philipina-Indonesia di Manila pada 1963. Para presidendari ketiga negara tersebut mengumumkan Deklarasi Manila yangmenggabungkan negara mereka ke dalam Maphilindo.

Dalam pidatopenutupan, Presiden Filipina Macapagal mengajak hadirin untuk mengenangkembali mimpi para nasionalis Filipina mulai Jose Rizal, PresidenManuel Quezon, Wenceslao Vinzons, sampai Presiden Elpidio Quirino untukmenyatukan bangsa-bangsa Melayu. Macapagal menyebut Presiden IndonesiaSoekarno dan Perdana Menteri Malaysia Tengku Abdul Rahman sebagai "two of the greatest sons of the Malay race".

Gagasanini berdasarkan peta antropologi bangsa-bangsa di mana Indonesia,Malaya, Temasek (Singapura), Filipina, Thailand, Burma (MYanmar),Vietnam, Kambodia, sampai Madagaskar dan Hawaii dikenal sebagai bangsaserumpun Melayu-Polinesia. Tapi sayang ide ini pudar seketika setelahPresiden RI Soekarno menyatakan perang terhadap Malaysia yang telahmenjadi boneka imperialis Inggris.

Malaysia yang merasa sebagaisatu-satunya negara perhimpunan bangsa Melayu bisa saja berkeinginanuntuk mewujudkan Melayu Raya itu di bawah kepemimpinannya. Meskipunmenurut sejarah kerajaan Melayu pertama adalah kerajaan Malayapura diSumatera – di bawah kekuasaan Majapahit – dengan rajanya Adityawarmantahun 1347. Adityawarman adalah utusan Majapahit untuk menaklukankerajaan Sriwijaya, yang kemudian berhasil memaksa Parameswara, putraRaja Sam Agi untuk melarikan diri ke Semenanjung Malaya dan mendirikankerajaan Malaka (1380-1403). Malaka kemudian jatuh ke tangan Portugistahun 1511.

2. Inggris

Sebagai pemimpin negara persemakmuran (commont wealth)dan bekas penjajah negara-negara anggotanya tersebut, tentu sajaInggris mempunyai kepentingan atas kekayaan negera-negaraanggotanya. Dengan kepentingan ekonomi dan juga politik ataswilayah-wilayah Indonesia, bisa saja Inggris ikut memberikan bantuanmiliter kepada Malaysia dalam konflik ini.

Melihat kondisiperekonomian AS yang anjlok sekarang ini, bisa saja muncul keberanianInggris untuk membuka front perlawanan melalui kaki tangannya,Malaysia, untuk merebut sumber minyak di Indonesia yang sekarangdikuasai perusahaan-perusahaan besar AS. Seperti diketahui AngkatanLaut Inggris adalah pasukan tempur laut terbaik di dunia, sehinggadengan modal ini Inggris cukup berani berhadapan dengan AS di AsiaTenggara.

3. Amerika Serikat (AS)

Kondisi ekonomiAS yang sedang mengalami penurunan berpengaruh terhadap kondisiperusahaan-perusahaan minyaknya yang sekarang sedang beroperasi diIndonesia. AS tentu tidak mau hak eksplorasi minyak di lepas pantaiIndonesia akan jatuh ke tangan Inggris yang berada di belakangMalaysia. Kemungkinan besar AS akan memberikan bantuan militer kepadaIndonesia apabila Malaysia memulai penyerangan dan perang tidak bisadihindari.

Selain itu perseteruan AS dengan Korea Utara mengenaisenjata berhulu ledak nuklir milik Korut semakin memanas, yang mungkinakan memaksa AS untuk menempatkan persenjataannya di wilayah Asia,dalam hal ini yang terdekat dengan Kores Utara adalah AsiaTenggara. Apabila terjadi peperangan antara Indonesia dengan Malaysia,maka AS mempunyai alasan untuk menempatkan kapal perang danpersenjataannya dengan membuat pangkalan militer di Indonesia.

4. Republik Rakyat Cina (RRC)

Sebagianbesar orang-orang keturunan Cina di negara-negara Asia Tenggarabergerak di bidang perdagangan dan ekonomi, sebagian adalah parakonglomerat dan pengusaha kelas dunia. Orang-orang keturunan Cinaumumnya tidak bisa melepaskan diri dari keterkaitan budaya dengan tanahleluhurnya di Cina, termasuk juga dengan pemerintahan yang sedangberkuasa di sana.

Keterikatan yang nyata adalah para pengusahakonglomerat keturunan tersebut menempatkan sebagian besar danainvestasi usahanya di Cina. Mereka juga mempunyai hubungan bisnisdengan banyak pengusaha di tanah leluhur.

Selain keterikatanbudaya dan ekonomi, warga keturunan Cina juga ada yang mempunyaihubungan politik dengan pemerintah Cina yang sosialis komunis. Sejarahmencatat ada Partai Komunis Malaysia di era 60-an yang sebagian besarpenggeraknya adalah warga keturunan.

Ada kemungkinan pergerakankomunisme di Asia Tenggara, termasuk di Indonesia mempunyai keterkaitanyang terencana. Bisa saja para aktivis komunis di Malaysia, Indonesiadan Cina saling berhubungan dan bersama-sama memblow-upisu-isu pertentangan agar situasi semakin memanas, khas gaya komunis,dengan cara mencetuskan masalah, ikut mempublikasikannya, dan terakhirikut berdemonstrasi agar suasana berkesan semakin kisruh.

KepentinganRRC yang terbesar adalah perluasan skop ekonomi dan politik mereka,sehingga negara-negara yang dikuasai komunis akan berkiblat secaraekonomi dan politik ke negara tirai bambu tersebut, atau dengan katalain RRC berniat membentuk RRC yang lebih luas atau Cina Raya.

Menurutsejarah gerakan komunis di Indonesia mudah untuk membonceng padaorganisasi atau orang berfaham nasionalis, seperti PKI yang didukungoleh Bung Karno disebabkan PKI satu-satunya yang mendukung program"Ganyang Malaysia"-nya Soekarno. Maka mungkin saja kelompok komunisberkeinginan untuk mengulang sejarah di masa lalu denganmengatasnamakan nasionalisme mereka bergerak merealisasikancita-citanya, mengkomuniskan Indonesia dan Malaysia.

5. Indonesia

KepentinganIndonesia terutama adalah mempertahankan wilayahnya, harga diri bangsadan aset-aset sumber kekayaan alam berupa minyak bumi lepas pantai,hutan kayu di daerah perbatasan dan sumber daya hayati laut. Sedangkankemungkinan adanya kepentingan politik sangat kecil.

6. Gerakan kelompok Islam radikal

Gerakankelompok Islam radikal yang akhir-akhir ini semakin menjadi sorotansetelah beberapa kali melakukan insiden pengebomam di beberapa negaratermasuk di Indonesia ada kemungkinan ikut mengambil manfaat darikeruhnya situasi hubungan Indonesia dengan Malaysia ini. Cita-citamereka untuk mendirikan Negara Islam Indonesia – untuk gerakan lokalIndonesia – mungkin bisa berkembang menjadi Negara Islam Asia Tenggara,dengan menjalin kerjasama dengan kelompok-kelompok Islam radikal diMalaysia, Moro di Filipina dan Pattani di Thailand.

Mungkinkah perang akan terjadi?

Kemungkinanperang benar-benar terjadi sangat kecil apabila dilihat dari kondisihubungan AS dan Inggris. Kedua negara ini selalu sefaham, baik dibidang politik dan ekonomi, dari era "Perang Dingin" melawan UniSovyet, perang melawan Irak, hingga perlawanan terhadap terorisAl-Qaeda. Kecuali perang dimulai sendiri oleh Malaysia atau Indonesia,atau kesepakatan keduanya tanpa mendengarkan suara AS dan Inggris.

Apabilamendengar berita terakhir mengenai terjadi peningkatan kekuatanangkatan bersenjata oleh militer kedua belah pihak, Indonesia danMalaysia, di daerah perbatasan, maka analisanya adalah kedua negaraberusaha keras mencegah terjadi pertikaian sporadis di pihak sipilkedua negara karena terpancing situasi yang kian memanas. Kalau analisaini benar, kemungkinan perang akan terjadi benar-benar kecil sekali.

Adayang perlu dicermati sehubungan dengan insiden-insiden yang memicukemarahan warga Indonesia terhadap Malaysia akhir-akhir ini, bahwakemungkinan sebagian insiden-insiden itu dilakukan dengan terencanaoleh pihak-pihak yang ingin mengambil keuntungan dari kekisruhanhubungan Indonesia-Malaysia untuk memancing kemarahan rakyat Indonesia.